Cardona-Arroyo, Aileen (2019). "Balzac v. Porto [sic] Rico". In Lavariega Monforti, Jessica L. (ed. Latinos in the American Political System: An Encyclopedia of Latinos as Voters, Candidates, and Office Holders [2 volumes]. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-1-4408-5347-0. Carlson, Laura (2007). Searching for Equality: Sex Discrimination, Parental Leave, and the Swedish Model with Comparisons to EU, UK, and US Law. Uppsala, Sweden: Iustus Förlag. ISBN 978-91-7678-646-8. Prior to the passage of the federal acts in the 1960s, the legislative variations permissible historically with respect to women's rights under the American federal system initially led to extremely different rights for women depending upon their state of residence Clark, Truman R. (1975). Puerto Rico and the United States, 1917–1933.
 These differences have created what political scientist Charles R. Venator-Santiago has called "separate and unequal" statuses.  History of nationality in Puerto Rico Spanish period (1508–1898) Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony for four hundred years, after Spain first established a settlement on the island in 1508.  In accordance with the Laws of the Indies, criollos, persons born in the colonies, had fewer rights than peninsulares, those born in Spain.
^ Hein 2009, pp. 450–451. ^ de Passalacqua 1990, p. 150. ^ Venator-Santiago 2013, p. 13. ^ Hein 2009, p. 454. ^ "Puerto Rico pays taxes. The US is obligated to help it just as much as Texas and Florida". Vox. October 4, 2017. ^ Aleinikoff 1994, p. 21. ^ Charles R. Santiago Venator (January 1, 2001). "Race, Space and the Puerto Rican Citizenship".
 Application Form for Certificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship Reverse side of the Application Form forCertificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship See also Santori v. United States Demographics of Puerto Rico Independence movement in Puerto Rico Statehood movement in Puerto Rico Notes ^ The Constitution of the United States establishes that rights flow from both national and state citizenship,  as does the Jones Act for Puerto Ricans.  Because, federal law, including treaties, overrides other laws within its territorial limits only if those laws are incompatible with national statutes,  states historically have had the ability to grant or withhold rights for various categories of persons residing in their jurisdiction without abridging the Equal Protection Clause.
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 The day prior to the ruling, Puerto Rico's Political Code had been amended with similar language.  Since the summer of 2007, the Puerto Rico State Department has developed a protocol to grant Puerto Rican citizenship certificates to Puerto Ricans.  Certificates of Puerto Rican citizenship are issued on request by the Puerto Rico State Department to confirm a person's citizenship status in Puerto Rico to any persons born on the island and subject to its jurisdiction, as well as to those born outside of the island that have at least one parent who was born on the island.
Retrieved March 18, 2021. Bickel, Alexander M. (1973). "Citizenship in the American Constitution" (PDF). Arizona Law Review. Tucson, Arizona: James E. Rogers College of Law. 15 (2): 369–387. ISSN 0004-153X. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2021. Bredbenner, Candice Lewis (1998). A Nationality of Her Own: Women, Marriage, and the Law of Citizenship. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20650-2.
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